三种Oracle RMAN备份加密策略

企鹅博客 2019年7月12日12:33:23 发表评论 1,266 views

数据安全,特别是企业核心业务数据的安全问题,是当今全社会共同关注的问题。从前几天轰轰烈烈的携程服务终止,风闻数据库被删除事件,到去年多次发生的互联网公司用户账号密码外泄风波,都不断挑战业界紧绷的神经。在当今社会,数据就是财富已经不是乌托邦,而是彻彻底底的现实。出现过信息泄露安全事故的企业,在商誉和品牌上的损失都是难以评估的。

从信息系统的角度看,备份是我们DBA的命脉,也是我们的“后手”。只要有备份,只要数据不丢,都有回旋的余地和空间。针对备份的安全,也是各种信息化安全标准均重要强调之处。

备份的安全,主要体现在两个层面上:备份有效性和备份不被非法使用。备份有效性是运维人员的噩梦,关键场合却发现备份不可用或者有坏块,是足以让运维人员吐血的场景。备份不被非法使用,是保证备份集合数据不会被非法的还原到其他环境中去。

作为Oracle官方推荐的备份恢复工具,RMAN提供了三种安全加密策略来确保备份不被非法使用。本篇主要来介绍这三种基本策略。

1、环境介绍

笔者选择Oracle 11g进行测试,版本编号为11.2.0.4。

SQL> select * from v$version;

BANNER

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production

PL/SQL Release 11.2.0.4.0 - Production

CORE    11.2.0.4.0    Production

TNS for Linux: Version 11.2.0.4.0 - Production

NLSRTL Version 11.2.0.4.0 - Production

为了使用rman进行热备份,开启归档模式。

SQL> select log_mode from v$database;

LOG_MODE

------------

ARCHIVELOG

RMAN备份安全的三种策略分别为:密码口令安全、Oracle Wallet安全和混合加密安全。

--------------------------------------推荐阅读 --------------------------------------

RMAN 配置归档日志删除策略 http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2013-11/92670.htm

Oracle基础教程之通过RMAN复制数据库 http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2013-07/87072.htm

RMAN备份策略制定参考内容 http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2013-03/81695.htm

RMAN备份学习笔记 http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2013-03/81892.htm

Oracle数据库备份加密 RMAN加密 http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2013-03/80729.htm

--------------------------------------分割线 --------------------------------------

下面分别介绍三种策略:

2、密码口令安全

密码口令安全如其名称,就是在加密解密过程中都需要交互式的密码输入。配置密码口令就在RMAN本身的配置中即可。

RMAN> show encryption for database ;

RMAN configuration parameters for database with db_unique_name SICSSTB are:

CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION FOR DATABASE OFF; # default

RMAN> show encryption algorithm;

RMAN configuration parameters for database with db_unique_name SICSSTB are:

CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM 'AES128'; # default

默认RMAN是不启用加密机制的。加密问题一定跟随着加密算法,默认加密算法为AES128。查看视图v$RMAN_ENCRYPTION_ALGORITHMS,可以看到当前可以使用的加密算法。

SQL> select * from v$rman_encryption_algorithms;

ALGORITHM_ID ALGORITHM_NAME  ALGORITHM_DESCRIPTION    IS_DEFAULT RESTORE_ONLY

------------ --------------- ------------------------- ---------- ------------

          1 AES128          AES 128-bit key          YES        NO

          2 AES192          AES 192-bit key          NO        NO

          3 AES256          AES 256-bit key          NO        NO

使用口令加密,首先使用set encryption命令设置上口令。

RMAN> set encryption on identified by 'test' only;

executing command: SET encryption

RMAN> show encryption for database;

RMAN configuration parameters for database with db_unique_name SICSSTB are:

CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION FOR DATABASE OFF; # default

注意后面的only标记,一定要加入进来。

下面可以进行备份:

RMAN> backup database plus archivelog;

Starting backup at 08-JUN-15

current log archived

allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=137 device type=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting archived log backup set

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying archived log(s) in backup set

(篇幅原因,有省略……)

Starting Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 08-JUN-15

piece handle=+RECO/sicsstb/autobackup/2015_06_08/s_881833159.266.881833159 comment=NONE

Finished Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 08-JUN-15

备份集合状态:

RMAN> list backup;

List of Backup Sets

===================

BS Key  Size      Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time

------- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------

1      14.01M    DISK        00:00:00    08-JUN-15     

        BP Key: 1  Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: NO  Tag: TAG20150608T093841

(篇幅原因,有省略……) 

        BP Key: 4  Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: NO  Tag: TAG20150608T093919

        Piece Name: +RECO/sicsstb/autobackup/2015_06_08/s_881833159.266.881833159

  SPFILE Included: Modification time: 08-JUN-15

  SPFILE db_unique_name: SICSSTB

  Control File Included: Ckp SCN: 2685935      Ckp time: 08-JUN-15

重启进入mount状态,尝试恢复。

SQL> shutdown immediate;

Database closed.

Database dismounted.

ORACLE instance shut down.

RMAN> connect target /

connected to target database (not started)

RMAN> startup mount;

Oracle instance started

database mounted

Total System Global Area    2087780352 bytes

Fixed Size                    2254824 bytes

Variable Size                553650200 bytes

Database Buffers            1526726656 bytes

Redo Buffers                  5148672 bytes

尝试进行恢复。

RMAN> restore database ;

Starting restore at 08-JUN-15

allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=131 device type=DISK

(篇幅原因,有省略……)

channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece +RECO/sicsstb/backupset/2015_06_08/nnndf0_tag20150608t093842_0.263.881833123

RMAN-00571: ===========================================================

RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============

RMAN-00571: ===========================================================

RMAN-03002: failure of restore command at 06/08/2015 09:46:38

ORA-19870: error while restoring backup piece +RECO/sicsstb/backupset/2015_06_08/nnndf0_tag20150608t093842_0.263.881833123

ORA-19913: unable to decrypt backup

ORA-28365: wallet is not open

备份集合被加密,不能读取。只能进行解密之后才能使用。

RMAN> set decryption identified by 'test';

executing command: SET decryption

之后再进行恢复操作。

RMAN> restore database;

Starting restore at 08-JUN-15

using channel ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set

channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00001 to +DATA/sicsstb/datafile/system.256.878897771

channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00002 to +DATA/sicsstb/datafile/sysaux.257.878897773

channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00003 to +DATA/sicsstb/datafile/undotbs1.258.878897773

channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00004 to +DATA/sicsstb/datafile/users.259.878897773

channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00005 to +DATA/sicsstb/datafile/example.265.878897857

channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece +RECO/sicsstb/backupset/2015_06_08/nnndf0_tag20150608t093842_0.263.881833123

channel ORA_DISK_1: piece handle=+RECO/sicsstb/backupset/2015_06_08/nnndf0_tag20150608t093842_0.263.881833123 tag=TAG20150608T093842

channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1

channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:35

Finished restore at 08-JUN-15

RMAN> recover database;

Starting recover at 08-JUN-15

using channel ORA_DISK_1

starting media recovery

media recovery complete, elapsed time: 00:00:00

Finished recover at 08-JUN-15

RMAN> alter database open;

database opened

那么,最后如何关闭这个属性呢?使用set encryption即可。

RMAN> set encryption off;

executing command: SET encryption

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